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Bovine IL-13 (Yeast-derived Recombinant Protein) - 25 micrograms

RP0002B-025
$250.00
In Stock
Data SheetAdd to Cart

Bulk quantities of proteins are available. Please contact us for bulk pricing.

Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is secreted by many cell types, but especially T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. IL-13 is an important mediator of allergic inflammation and disease. In addition to effects on immune cells, IL-13 is implicated as a central mediator of the physiologic changes induced by allergic inflammation in many tissues. The functions of IL-13 overlap considerably with those of IL-4, especially with regard to changes induced on hematopoietic cells, but these effects are probably less important given the more potent role of IL-4. Thus, although IL-13 can induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion from activated human B cells, deletion of IL-13 from mice does not markedly affect either Th2 cell development or antigen-specific IgE responses induced by potent allergens. In comparison, deletion of IL-4 abrogates these responses. Thus, rather than a lymphoid cytokine, IL-13 acts more prominently as a molecular bridge linking allergic inflammatory cells to the non-immune cells in contact with them, thereby altering physiological function.

The biological activity of recombinant bovine IL-13 was measured in a cell proliferation assay using the human TF-1 cell line. The ED50 for this effect is typically 20  - 30 ng/mL.

Alternate Names - IL13, IL-13, P600, interleukin 13

IL-13 Homology Across Species
Bos taurus (cattle) IL-13 - 100%
Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) IL-13 – 100%
Bos indicus (zebu) IL-13 – 100%
Bos mutus (wild yak) IL-13 – 99%
Bison bison bison (American buffalo) – 99%
​More - https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Bovine IL-13 (Yeast-derived Recombinant Protein) - 25 micrograms
Catalog No.:
RP0002B-025
Quantity:
25 ug
Source:
The Bovine IL-13 recombinant protein was produced in yeast and therefore does not have endotoxin, is naturally folded, and post-translationally modified.
MW:
The Bovine IL-13 recombinant protein has a predicted molecular weight of 12.6 kDa.
Protein Sequence:
SPVPSATALK ELIEELVNIT QNQKVPLCNG SMVWSLNLTS SMYCAALDSL ISISNCSVIQ RTKKMLNALC PHKPSAKQVS SEYVRDTKIE VAQFLKDLLR HSRIVFRNER FN (112)
Country of Origin:
USA
Applications:
The Bovine IL-13 endotoxin-free recombinant protein can be used in cell culture, as an IL-13 ELISA Standard, and as a Western Blot Control.

28871261

The chronic stages of bovine Fasciola hepatica are dominated by CD4 T-cell exhaustion

Sachdev D, Gough KC, Flynn RJ.

J Immunol. 2014 Jul 15;193(2):597-609

Applications: Bovine IL-2 was used to stimulate cells. Bovine IL-2 and IL-13 were measure in cell culture supernatants by ELISA.

Abstract

Fasciola hepatica infection of ruminants leads to non-resolving chronic infection, as patency develops, there is switching to a TGF-β and IL-10 led response. Here, we explore the responses of CD4 T-cells within the major draining lymph nodes. We found minimal expression of Foxp3 within CD4 cells but elevated levels within the γδ (WC1+) population. There is a strong T-cell-intrinsic exhaustion phenotype within the hepatic lymph node (HLN) characterized by a lack of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion. CD4 T-cells recovered from the HLN had high levels of PD-1 expression and low levels of IL-2 secretion. Exogenous IL-2 partially rescued this defect; when combined with neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-β, full restoration of proliferation, and cytokine production was achieved. Moreover, there is a clear uncoupling of the mechanisms that facilitate this regulation with parasite-specific proliferation and cytokine secretion being governed by independent means. These data would suggest that there is a CD4 T-cell-intrinsic regulation in place early in chronic infection, potentially leading to failure in resistance to reinfection.

 


26362930

Dynamics of IL-4 and IL-13 expression in the airways of sheep following allergen challenge.

Liravi B, Piedrafita D, Nguyen G, Bischof RJ.

BMC Pulm Med. 2015 Sep 11;15:101. doi: 10.1186/s12890-015-0097-9.

Applications: Measurement of ovine IL-13 in cell culture supernatants by ELISA

Abstract

Background: IL-4 and IL-13 play a critical yet poorly understood role in orchestrating the recruitment and activation of effector cells of the asthmatic response and driving the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. The house dust mite (HDM) sheep asthma model displays many features of the human condition and is an ideal model to further elucidate the involvement of these critical Th2 cytokines. We hypothesized that airway exposure to HDM allergen would induce or elevate the expression profile of IL-4 and IL-13 during the allergic airway response in this large animal model of asthma.

Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from saline- and house dust mite (HDM)- challenged lung lobes of sensitized sheep from 0 to 48 h post-challenge. BAL cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α) were each measured by ELISA. IL-4 and IL-13 expression was assessed in BAL leukocytes by flow cytometry and in airway tissue sections by immunohistology.

Results: IL-4 and IL-13 were increased in BAL samples following airway allergen challenge. HDM challenge resulted in a significant increase in BAL IL-4 levels at 4 h compared to saline-challenged airways, while BAL IL-13 levels were elevated at all time-points after allergen challenge. IL-6 levels were maintained following HDM challenge but declined after saline challenge, while HDM administration resulted in an acute elevation in IL-10 at 4 h but no change in TNF-α levels over time. Lymphocytes were the main early source of IL-4, with IL-4 release by alveolar macrophages (AMs) prominent from 24 h post-allergen challenge. IL-13 producing AMs were increased at 4 and 24 h following HDM compared to saline challenge, and tissue staining provided evidence of IL-13 expression in airway epithelium as well as immune cells in airway tissue.

Conclusion: In a sheep model of allergic asthma, airway inflammation is accompanied by the temporal release of key cytokines following allergen exposure that primarily reflects the Th2-driven nature of the immune response in asthma. The present study demonstrates for the first time the involvement of IL-4 and IL-13 in a relevant large animal model of allergic airways disease.


22627785

Classically or alternatively activated bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro do not resemble CD163/Calprotectin biased macrophage populations in the teat.

Düvel A, Frank C, Schnapper A, Schuberth HJ, Sipka A

Innate Immun. 2012 May 23.

Applications: Stimulation of bovine MDM cells.

Abstract
The functional phenotype of resident macrophages significantly determines the character of an inflammatory response. In this study we identified two phenotypes of tissue macrophages in bovine teat tissue based on expression of Calprotectin and CD163. To investigate a possible link between the dichotomy in phenotype and functional properties of cells in association with different host mediators we set up an in vitro model with bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM). In vitro differentiated MdM invariably and uniformly expressed both antigens. Classically activated MdM (IFN-γ priming and LPS stimulation) showed a decreased CD163 expression while alternative activation (IL-4/IL-13 priming) did not change expression of CD163 and Calprotectin. Differently activated MdM showed a clearly distinct expression of genes related to classical (IL-12, inducible NO synthase) or alternative activation (IL-10, arginase I). The presence of the inflammatory host mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) neither influenced expression of Calprotectin and CD163 nor gene expression profiles in MdM generated in the presence of PGE(2) (PGE(2)-MdM). Supernatants of PGE(2-)MdM, however, significantly dampened the migration of neutrophilic granulocytes. The results of this study highlight the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro obtained macrophages and point to the necessity to analyze the functional capacities of bovine tissue macrophages in situ.


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