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Bovine IL-17A (Yeast-derived Recombinant Protein) - 25 micrograms

RP0056B-025
$250.00
In Stock
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IL-17A is a member of the IL-17 family, which is comprised of 6 members [IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17C, IL-17D, IL-17E (also called IL-25), and IL-17F]. IL-17 family members are involved in numerous immune regulatory functions, including inducing and mediating proinflammatory responses and allergic responses. Il-17 induces the production of many other cytokines (IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1beta, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha), chemokines, including IL-8 (CXCL8), GRO-alpha (CXCL1) and MCP-1 (CCL2) and prostaglandins from many cell types (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, keratinocytes and macrophages).

Alternate Names - IL17A, CTLA8, IL-17, IL-17A, IL17, CTLA-8, interleukin 17A

IL-17A Homology Across Species
Bos taurus (cattle) IL-17A – 100%
Bison bison bison (bison) IL-17A - 100%
Bos indicus (zebu) IL-17A – 100%
Bos mutus (wild yak) IL-17A – 100%
Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) IL-17A – 99%
Ovis aries (sheep) IL-17A – 98%
Capra hircus (goat) IL-17A – 98%
Cervus elaphus (red deer) IL-17A – 96%
Pantholops hodgsonii (chiru) IL-17A – 96%
More - https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Bovine IL-17A (Yeast-derived Recombinant Protein) - 25 micrograms
Catalog No.:
RP0056B-025
Quantity:
25 ug
Source:
The Bovine IL-17A recombinant protein was produced in yeast and therefore does not have endotoxin, is naturally folded, and post-translationally modified.
MW:
The Bovine IL-17A recombinant protein has a predicted molecular weight of 15.0 kDa
Protein Sequence:
KAGVIIPQSP GCPPTEDKNF PQHVRVNLNI VNRSTNSRRP TDYHKRSTSP WTLHRNEDPE RYPSVIWEAK CSHSGCINAE GKVDHHMNSV TIQQEILVLR RESQHCPHSF RLEKMLVAVG CTCVTPIVRH LA (132)
Country of Origin:
USA
Applications:
The bovine IL-17A endotoxin-free recombinant protein can be used in cell culture, as a IL-17A ELISA Standard, and as a Western Blot Control.

32487248

Defining immune correlates during latent and active chlamydial infection in sheep

Wattegedera SR, Livingstone M, Maley S, Rocchi M, Lee S, Pang Y, Wheelhouse NM, Aitchison K, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Buxton D, Longbottom D, Entrican G.

Vet Res. 2020 Jun 1;51(1):75. doi: 10.1186/s13567-020-00798-6.

Applications: Measurement of bovine IL-17A in cell culture supernatants by ELISA

Abstract
Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus), is an endemic disease in most sheep-rearing countries worldwide. Following infection, C. abortus establishes a complex host–pathogen interaction with a latent phase in non-pregnant sheep followed by an active disease phase in the placenta during pregnancy leading to OEA. Improved knowledge of the host–pathogen interactions at these different phases of disease will accelerate the development of new diagnostic tests and vaccines to control OEA. Current evidence indicates that cellular immunity is essential for controlling C. abortus infection. We have previously described a model of mucosal (intranasal) infection of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus that replicates the latent and active phases of OEA. We have investigated antigen-specific recall responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in sheep infected with C. abortus via the intranasal route to determine how these change during the latent and active phases of disease. By analysing cytokines associated with the major CD4+ve Thelper (Th) cell subsets (Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)/Th1; Interleukin (IL)-4/Th2; IL-17A/Th17; IL-10/Tregulatory), we show that there is selective activation of PBMC producing IFN-γ and/or IL-10 during the latent phase following infection. These cytokines are also elevated during the active disease phase and while they are produced by sheep that are protected from OEA, they are also produced by sheep that abort, highlighting the difficulties in finding specific cellular immunological correlates of protection for complex intracellular pathogens.


31690788

Characterization of local and circulating bovine γδ T cell responses to respiratory BCG vaccination.

Guerra-Maupome M, McGill JL.

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 5;9(1):15996. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52565-z.

Applications: Detection of bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN gamma secreting cells by ELISPOT; Measurement of bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by ELISA

Abstract

The Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered parenterally to infants and young children to prevent tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the protection induced by BCG is highly variable and the vaccine does not prevent pulmonary TB, the most common form of the illness. Until improved TB vaccines are available, it is crucial to use BCG in a manner which ensures optimal vaccine performance. Immunization directly to the respiratory mucosa has been shown to promote greater protection from TB in animal models. γδ T cells play a major role in host defense at mucosal sites and are known to respond robustly to mycobacterial infection. Their positioning in the respiratory mucosa ensures their engagement in the response to aerosolized TB vaccination. However, our understanding of the effect of respiratory BCG vaccination on γδ T cell responses in the lung is unknown. In this study, we used a calf model to investigate the immunogenicity of aerosol BCG vaccination, and the phenotypic profile of peripheral and mucosal γδ T cells responding to vaccination. We observed robust local and systemic M. bovis-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 production by both γδ and CD4 T cells. Importantly, BCG vaccination induced effector and memory cell differentiation of γδ T cells in both the lower airways and peripheral blood, with accumulation of a large proportion of effector memory γδ T cells in both compartments. Our results demonstrate the potential of the neonatal calf model to evaluate TB vaccine candidates that are to be administered via the respiratory tract, and suggest that aerosol immunization is a promising strategy for engaging γδ T cells in vaccine-induced immunity against TB.


31641172

Vitamin A deficiency impairs the immune response to intranasal vaccination and RSV infection in neonatal calves.

McGill JL, Kelly SM, Guerra-Maupome M, Winkley E, Henningson J, Narasimhan B, Sacco RE.

Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 22;9(1):15157. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51684-x.

Applications: Measurement of bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by ELISA

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent nutrition-related health problems in the world and is a significant risk factor in the development of severe respiratory infections in infants and young children. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young cattle. The calf model of BRSV infection is useful to understand the immune response to human RSV infection. We have previously developed an amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine (i.e., nanovaccine) encapsulating the fusion and attachment proteins from BRSV (BRSV-NP). Calves receiving a single, intranasal dose of the BRSV-NP vaccine are partially protected from BRSV challenge. Here, we evaluated the impact of VAD on the immune response to the BRSV-NP vaccine and subsequent challenge with BRSV. Our results show that VAD calves are unable to respond to the mucosal BRSV-NP vaccine, are afforded no protection from BRSV challenge and have significant abnormalities in the inflammatory response in the infected lung. We further show that acute BRSV infection negatively impacts serum and liver retinol, rendering even well-nourished individuals susceptible to VAD. Our results support the use of the calf model for elucidating the impact of nutritional status on mucosal immunity and respiratory viral infection in infants and underline the importance of VA in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa.


31611273

Divergent Antigen-Specific Cellular Immune Responses during Asymptomatic Subclinical and Clinical States of Disease in Cows Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Stabel JR, Bannantine JP.

Infect Immun. 2019 Dec 17;88(1). pii: e00650-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00650-19. Print 2019 Dec 17.

Applications: Measurement of bovine IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17A in cell culture supernatants by ELISA

Abstract

Infection of the host with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis results in chronic and progressive enteritis that traverses both subclinical and clinical stages. The mechanism(s) for the shift from an asymptomatic subclinical disease state to advanced clinical disease is not fully understood. In the present study, naturally infected dairy cattle were divided into subclinical and clinical infection groups, along with noninfected control cows of similar parity, to study host immune responses in different stages of infection. Both infection groups had higher levels of secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) than control cows, whereas only clinical cows had increased secretion of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18 upon stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with antigen. Conversely, secretion of IL-17Α was decreased for clinical cows compared to subclinical and control cows. Proinflammatory cytokine genes were upregulated only for subclinical cows, whereas increased IL-10 and IL-17 gene expression levels were observed for both infection groups. Increased CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cell receptor-positive (TCR+) T cells were observed for subclinical cows compared to clinical cows. Although clinical cows expressed antigen-specific immune responses, the profile for subclinical cows was one of a dominant proinflammatory response to infection. We reason that a complex coordination of immune responses occurs during M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, with these responses shifting as the host transitions through the different stages of infection and disease (subclinical to clinical). A further understanding of the series of events characterized by Th1/Th2/Th17 responses will provide mechanisms for disease progression and may direct insightful intervention strategies.


31340991

Interleukin 8 and Pentaxin (C-Reactive Protein) as Potential New Biomarkers of Bovine Tuberculosis.

Gao X, Guo X, Li M, Jia H, Lin W, Fang L, Jiang Y, Zhu H, Zhang Z, Ding J, Xin T.

J Clin Microbiol. 2019 Sep 24;57(10). pii: e00274-19. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00274-19. Print 2019 Oct.

Applications: Measurement of bovine IL-17A and CXCL10 (IP-10) in serum and plasma by ELISA


30908540

Prophylactic digoxin treatment reduces IL-17 production in vivo in the neonatal calf and moderates RSV-associated disease.

McGill JL, Guerra-Maupome M, Schneider S.

PLoS One. 2019 Mar 25;14(3):e0214407. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214407. eCollection 2019.

Applications: Detection of bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN gamma secreting cells by ELISPOT; Measurement of bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN gamma in nasal secretions by ELISA

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human infants. Bovine RSV infection of neonatal calves is pathologically and immunologically similar to RSV infection in infants, and is therefore a useful preclinical model for testing novel therapeutics. Treatment of severe RSV bronchiolitis relies on supportive care and may include use of bronchodilators and inhaled or systemic corticosteroids. Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment and activation. IL-17 is increased in children and rodents with severe RSV infection; and in calves with severe BRSV infection. It is currently unclear if IL-17 and Th17 immunity is beneficial or detrimental to the host during RSV infection. Digoxin was recently identified to selectively inhibit IL-17 production by antagonizing its transcription factor, retinoid-related orphan receptor γ t (RORγt). Digoxin inhibits RORγt binding to IL-17 and Th17 associated genes, and suppresses IL-17 production in vitro in human and murine leukocytes and in vivo in rodent models of autoimmune disease. We demonstrate here that in vitro and in vivo digoxin treatment also inhibits IL-17 production by bovine leukocytes. To determine the role of IL-17 in primary RSV infection, calves were treated prophylactically with digoxin and infected with BRSV. Digoxin treated calves demonstrated reduced signs of clinical illness after BRSV infection, and reduced lung pathology compared to untreated control calves. Digoxin treatment did not adversely affect virus shedding or lung viral burden, but had a significant impact on pulmonary inflammatory cytokine expression on day 10 post infection. Together, our results suggest that exacerbated expression of IL-17 has a negative impact on RSV disease, and that development of specific therapies targeting Th17 immunity may be a promising strategy to improve disease outcome during severe RSV infection.


30616609

Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk.

Benedictus L, Ravesloot L, Poppe K, Daemen I, Boerhout E, van Strijp J, Broere F, Rutten V, Koets A, Eisenberg S.

BMC Vet Res. 2019 Jan 7;15(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1765-9.

Applications: Measurement of bovine IL-17A in cell culture supernatants by ELISA.

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus naïve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus.

Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically naïve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum.

Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus naïve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.


27816241

Immune response after an experimental intramammary challenge with killed Staphylococcus aureus in cows and heifers vaccinated and not vaccinated with Startvac, a polyvalent mastitis vaccine.

Piepers S, Prenafeta A, Verbeke J, De Visscher A, March R, De Vliegher S.

J Dairy Sci. 2017 Jan;100(1):769-782. doi: 10.3168/jds.2016-11269. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Applications: Measurement of Bovine IL-17A in cell culture supernatants by ELISA.


26987959

Regulation of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in airway epithelial cells of cattle.

Taha-Abdelaziz K, Wyer L, Berghuis L, Bassel LL, Clark ME, Caswell JL.

Vet Res. 2016 Mar 17;47:44. doi: 10.1186/s13567-016-0329-x.

Applications: Stimulation of of bovine tracheal epithelial cells with bovine IL-17A in culture

Abstract
β-defensins are an important element of the mucosal innate immune response against bacterial pathogens. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against the bacteria that cause bovine respiratory disease, and its expression in tracheal epithelial cells is upregulated by bacterial products including lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist), Pam3CSK4 (an agonist of Toll-like receptor 2/1), and interleukin (IL)-17A. The objectives of this study were to identify the signalling pathway by which LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A induce TAP gene expression, and to determine the effect of glucocorticoid as a model of stress on this epithelial innate immune response. In primary cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells (bTEC), LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A each stimulated TAP gene expression. This effect was abrogated by caffeic acid phenylester (CAPE), an inhibitor of NF-κB. Similarly, western analysis showed that LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A each induced translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, but pre-treatment with CAPE inhibited this response. Finally, pre-treatment of bTEC with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone abolished the stimulatory effect of LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A on upregulation of TAP gene expression. These findings indicate that NF-κB activation is necessary for induction of TAP gene expression by LPS (a TLR4 agonist), Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2/1 agonist), or IL-17A. Furthermore, this stimulatory response is inhibited by glucocorticoid, suggesting this as one mechanism by which stress increases the risk of bacterial pneumonia. These findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of stress-associated bacterial pneumonia, and for developing methods to stimulate innate immune responses in the respiratory tract of cattle.


25304258

Comparison of innate immune agonists for induction of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells of cattle.

Berghuis L, Abdelaziz KT, Bierworth J, Wyer L, Jacob G, Karrow NA, Sharif S, Clark ME, Caswell JL.

Vet Res. 2014 Oct 12;45(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s13567-014-0105-8.

Applications: Stimulation of of bovine tracheal epithelial cells with bovine IL-17A and bovine IFN alpha in culture

Abstract
Bovine respiratory disease is a complex of bacterial and viral infections of economic and welfare importance to the beef industry. Although tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) has microbicidal activity against bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, risk factors for bovine respiratory disease including BVDV and stress (glucocorticoids) have been shown to inhibit the induced expression of this gene. Lipopolysaccharide is known to stimulate TAP gene expression, but the maximum effect is only observed after 16 h of stimulation. The present study investigated other agonists of TAP gene expression in primary cultures of bovine tracheal epithelial cells. PCR analysis of unstimulated tracheal epithelial cells, tracheal tissue and lung tissue each showed mRNA expression for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1-10. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Pam3CSK4 (an agonist of TLR1/2) and interleukin (IL)-17A significantly induced TAP gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells after only 4-8 h of stimulation. Flagellin (a TLR5 agonist), lipopolysaccharide and interferon-α also had stimulatory effects, but little or no response was found with class B CpG ODN 2007 (TLR9 agonist) or lipoteichoic acid (TLR2 agonist). The use of combined agonists had little or no enhancing effect above that of single agonists. Thus, Pam3CSK4, IL-17A and lipopolysaccharide rapidly and significantly induce TAP gene expression, suggesting that these stimulatory pathways may be of value for enhancing innate immunity in feedlot cattle at times of susceptibility to disease.


23696826

T helper 17-associated cytokines are produced during antigen-specific inflammation in the mammary gland.

Rainard P, Cunha P, Bougarn S, Fromageau A, Rossignol C, Gilbert FB, Berthon P.

PLoS One. 2013 May 16;8(5):e63471. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063471. Print 2013.

Applications: Measurement by ELISA of IL-17A in bovine milk samples.

Abstract
Infectious mastitis cuts down milk production profitability and is a major animal welfare problem. Bacteria-induced inflammation in the mammary gland (MG) is driven by innate immunity, but adaptive immunity can modulate the innate response. Several studies have shown that it is possible to elicit inflammation in the MG by sensitization to an antigen subsequently infused into the lumen of the gland. The objective of our study was to characterize the inflammation triggered in the MG of cows sensitized to ovalbumin, by identifying the cytokines and chemokines likely to play a part in the reaction. Among immunized cows, responders mobilized locally high numbers of leukocytes. An overexpression of the genes encoding IL-17a, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and INF-γ was found in milk cell RNA extracts in the early phase of the inflammatory response. At the protein level, IL-17A was detected in milk as soon as the first sampling time (8 h post-challenge), and both IL-17A and IFN-γ concentrations peaked at 12 to 24 h post-challenge. In mammary tissue from challenged quarters, overexpression of the genes encoding IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-26 and IFN-γ was observed. Neutrophil-attracting chemokines (CXCL3 and CXCL8) were found in milk, and overexpressed transcripts of chemokines attracting lymphocytes and other mononuclear leukocytes (CXCL10, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20) were detected in mammary tissue. Expression of IL-17A, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, was located in epithelial cells, in leukocytes in the connective tissue and in association with the epithelium, and in migrated alveolar leukocytes of challenged quarters. Altogether, these results show that antigen-specific inflammation in the MG was characterized by the production of IL-17 and IFN-γ. The orientation of the inflammatory response induced by the antigen-specific response has the potential to strongly impact the outcome of bacterial infections of the MG.


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